WELCOME TO  GLENWOOD, WASHINGTON
                              WEATHER
Glenwood is located at the foot of Mt Adams,  in the scenic                        
Glenwood Valley/Camas Prairie
  of Klickitat County
Note.....Mt. Adams  is NOT in Klickitat County.

PHOTO BY DARLISA [email protected] Starlisa.net

THE 1855 TREATY MAP 
THE TREATY WAS SIGNED JUNE 11, 1855 AT THE WALLA WALLA COUNCIL 

    From archives in Washington D. C., Darryl Lloyd was able to obtain a copy of the “ 1855 Treaty Map."  The map was misplaced after the treaty was signed and evidently found amongst some legal papers in Montana.  The map now rests in Washington D.C. Thank you to Darryl for providing a copy of the original map.

Close up of the Mt Adams section of the 1855 Map

   The western portion of the map below,  shows the latitude and longitude of the Camas Prairie. The valley is located on the 46th parallel (46 degrees N. latitude). It was easy for early surveyors to determine accurate latitude (with a sextant when the sun crossed the meridian) . However, the 121st meridian (121 degrees W. longitude) was only an estimate, because exact time (Greenwich Mean Time) was required for precise longitude mapping, and surveyors in 1855 did not have the precision chronometers. But they did map the Glenwood Valley very accurately by latitude. On the map, the valley lies far south of the sketched boundary of the Yakama Reservation. 

Surveyors George McClellan, and James Cooper surveyed the Fort Vancouver and Klickitat Trail area, prior to the 1855 Treaty.
The "Klikitat Trail was an overland route from Fort Vancouver to The Dalles and Yakima Valley.  They were surveying it in 1853-1854 as a possible route for the railroad.     

As a reference....the stats for my weather station are:  Lat:  46.016,   Lon:  -121.275

This portion of the map shows the signature  of Isaac Stevens, Governor of Washington Territory, dated June 12th, 1855.

REFERENCE PAGES

From October 1923 Delia Coon Washington Historical Quarterly:
  This rendition says the Klickitats refused to attend the 1855 Treaty signing and were angry when they found out Kamiakin had signed away their lands without their knowledge.

Working on the Military Road in 1854, these men climbed Mt Adams

     I grew up on these lower plains, (prairies)  east of Vancouver.  I am finding it fascinating that these areas of prairies growing camas were connected by a well used Indian Trail to the higher lands of Indian Heaven and the Glenwood Valley, (Camas Prairie),  crossing the Klickitat to the Simcoes or The Dalles and connecting with the Cowlitz River.  I feel like I have been able  to live in the best of two worlds.  The low land prairies and the mountain prairies where both the Oak Trees and Camas Plant, grew abundantly.  


 To show that there was a connection between the Klickitat people and the Fort Vancouver area.
From Page 63 of the     
The Taidnapam

5.2. Klickitat Sites from the Cascade Crest West

I list below 52 named sites west of the Yakama treaty ceded area boundary, 20 in the Lewis River basin, 23 on the Indian Heaven divide and west slopes of Mt. Adams, and 9 in the Wind River basin.

5.2.1. The Lewis River Basin and the Lower Columbia River


wée-kas

―Information by Chief Stwire Waters: CHIEF WHITE SWAN. About eight miles west of Vancouver, Wash. is Weé-kas, a lake of considerable size [Vancouver Lake?]. It was a great resort of the white swan, as well as of geese and ducks. In 1852, according to Chief Waters, the Klikitats sold these water fowls to the small town of Portland, by the canoe load. For a swan they received $1-50, the geese bringing $1-00 each, while a duck was worth only 50 cents. The Indians exchanging for flour, sugar, coffee and other


household commodities. A small Klikitat boy was sent at night to the shores of Weé-kas for the purpose of obtaining tahmahnawis. He ̳fell down‘ and the swans came in a circle about him and sang. The boy received the swan tah, and he said: ̳I have seen the white swan and heard their song. From this time I will take the name of White Swan.‘ This lad afterward was Chief White Swan  of the Yakimas. Chief Stwire G. Waters, brother of White Swan said: ̳I have heard the swans singing. They begin all together just like girl-singers. It is nice music; fine to hear. They sing different times of day.‘ Weé-kas appears to have no particular deffinition, no meaning‖ (McWhorter n.d.); Silverstein maps two Multnomah villages at Vancouver Lake.


MY THOUGHTS

   Here is the main reason, as of now, that I do not think the Glenwood Valley is part of the Yakama Reservation.  In 1856 both the Indians and the Military recognize the temporary White Salmon Reservation as separate from the Yakama Reservation,  and including  the Camas Prairie area.
The Camas Prairie area was not an unknown mystery land.  It was at a major junction of the Klickitat Trail used by Native Americans, Hudson Bay employees and later the U.S. military and miners headed to the Idaho gold fields.  
When McClellan and his party in 1853,  surveyed the Klickitat Trail as a route for an east-west railroad, it was already not the favored route.  It was suspected that Naches and Snoqualmie were better, but I have not yet read, that by 1855 at the signing of the treaty,  the U.S. Government had totally disbanded the idea of  a railroad along the Klickitat Trail.  

   I find the similarities amongst all peoples  of agreements, whether signed or verbal,  with the Federal Government not following through with their promises.  The tribes signed the treaty in 1855, but it was not ratified until 1859.  During that time, they received little or no payment nor recognition  from the Government.  The land they had traditionally used for hunting and gathering was being over run by miners and settlers and the Government was not giving them a recognized reservation with hunting and gathering rights on the ceded land.
   The Joslyn family was promised payment for the use of their farm land for the temporary White Salmon Reservation.  Joslyn had to take the Federal Government to court to receive his payment.  
When we first moved to the Glenwood area, local farmers had recently sold their land to the Federal Government for the establishment of a Refuge.  Farmers told us they had been told, they would still be able to use the ground for grazing and hay. They would never know they had sold it.....
   And now the residents of the Glenwood Valley live in a time when maps show the Glenwood Valley as part of the Yakama Reservation.  GPS shows the "Now Entering the Yakama Reservation.  The Yakama Tribe says the Glenwood Valley is part of the Yakama Reservation.
 However.... the Federal Government has never made a clear, concise verbal and written statement  to the land owners and residents of this valley, as to why these things are happening.   




In August of 1856
The Klickitats are well established in the area of the lower Columbia and Fort Vancouver area,  but an effort is made to move them to a reservation.  Governor Stevens talks like the area belongs to Yocatowit and his people because they have conquered it, but Stevens wants them to go to the temporary White Salmon Reservation and then to the Yakama Reservation.  Stevens probably knew all along that he wasn't going to let them come back to the Vancouver area.  
Yocotowit knows what is included in the White Salmon Reservation:   “I want to go into the country between the White Salmon, Klickitat and Yakama rivers. There is plenty of fish, roots, berries, game and everything we want. It is also our own country.

Both Stevens and Yocotowit recognize that the area is separate from the Yakama Reservation 

  
From Northwest Anthropology:    
    

"....Upon Umtuch’s death, Yocatowit became the primary leader of the Klickitat....

At a council with Washington Territorial Governor Isaac I. Stevens at Fort Vancouver in August 1856, Yocatowit was asked by Governor Stevens where he was from. “Here the Governor put this question to Yocatowit. ‘To what portion of this country did you originally belong? To which he answered that he originally belonged to, and came from the country at the head of Puget Sound and that he would like to live there” (Stevens 1856). He acknowledged that his tribe did not originally own this country but conquered and won it. This further confirms my interpretation that the Taidnapam were recent movement (ca. 1850s) into the area adjacent to Fort Vancouver.

Instead of encouraging Yocatowit to return north, Stevens told those present that “You have conquered this land and it is your own. We treat with you as its conquerors. You have the possession, and the possessors are the ones with whom we treat.” Stevens encouraged them to go to the temporary White Salmon reservation for one year and then remove to the Yakama Reservation acknowledging that they were not party to the Yakama Treaty. To which Yocatowit agreed. “I want to go into the country between the White Salmon, Klickitat and Yakama rivers. There is plenty of fish, roots, berries, game and everything we want. It is also our own country.” Yocatowit also agreed to gather all the Klickitats from “[Governor Joel] Palmer’s Reservation in Oregon” and take them with him.

Stevens approved stating that it was to be a temporary arrangement to try for one year. “I have as yet made no treaty with you – I have not bought your lands. You still own them: but I will advise you to go to the Yakama country... I make no treaty with you but I wish you to go there and try the place.” He further promised that he would hold their interest in lands at Vancouver, but not make a treaty with them at the present, leaving open the possibility that a treaty was to be concluded with them in the future, which, of course, never happened. The area of southwest Washington Territory was to remain non-treaty."


 September of 1856 
Agent Townsend is put in charge of the White Salmon Reservation.
In June of 1857 he writes his report.  I have included the portions that mention Camas Prairie.  The White Salmon Reservation was a sad story.  The U.S. Government pretty much left the Indians destitute.  In order to survive, most of them gave up and moved to the Yakama Reservation.